Course Readings & Recommended Readings

Please leave your recommended readings in the comments below!

Aberson, C. L., & Ettlin, T. E. (2004). The aversive racism paradigm and responses favoring African Americans: Meta-analytic evidence of two types of favoritism.Social Justice Research, 17(1), 25-46.

Adams, G., Biernat, M., Branscombe, N. R., Crandall, C. S., & Wrightsman, L. S. (2008). Beyond prejudice: Toward a sociocultural psychology of racism and oppression. In G. Adams, M. Biernat, N. R. Branscombe, C. S. Crandall, & L. S. Wrightsman (Eds.), Commemorating Brown: The Social Psychology of Racism and Discrimination (pp. 215-246). Washington, DC: APA Books.

Adams, G., O’Brien, L. & Nelson, J. C.. (2006). Perceptions of racism in Hurricane Katrina: A Liberation Psychology analysis. Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy, 6, 215-235.

Amodio, D. M., & Devine, P. G. (2005). Changing Prejudice: The Effects of Persuasion on Implicit and Explicit Forms of Race Bias. In Persuasion: Psychological Insights and Perspectives, 2nd ed. (pp. 249-280).

Apfelbaum, Norton, & Sommers (2012). Racial color blindness: Emergence, practice, and implications. Current Directions in Psychological Science.

Apfelbaum, Sommers & Norton (2008). Seeing race and seeming racist? Evaluating strategic colorblindness in social interaction. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 95, 918-932.

Apfelbaum, E.P., Pauker, K., Sommers, S., & Ambady, N. (2010). In blind pursuit of racial equality? Psychological Science, 21, 1587-1592.

Bargh, J. A., Chen, M., & Burrows, L. (1996). Automaticity of social behavior: Direct effects of trait construct and stereotype activation on action. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 71, 230-244.

Bell, J. M., & Hartmann, D. (2007). Diversity in everyday discourse: The cultural ambiguities and consequences of happy talk. American Sociological Review, 72(6), 895-914.

Blaine, B.E. (2007). Categorization and Stereotyping: Cognitive Processes that Shape Perceived Diversity. Chapter 2 in Understanding the Psychology of Diversity (pp. 20-41). Sage: Thousand Oaks, CA.

Blair, I. V. (2002). The Malleability of Automatic Stereotypes and Prejudice. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 6(3), 242.

Blair, I. V., Ma, J. E., & Lenton, A. P. (2001). Imagining Stereotypes Away: The Moderation of Implicit Stereotypes Through Mental Imagery. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 81(5), 828-840. doi: 10.1037//0022-3514.81.5.828.

Blascovich, J., Spencer, S. J., Quinn, D., & Steele, C. (2001). African Americans and High Blood Pressure: The Role of Stereotype Threat. Psychological Science, 12(3), 225-229.

Bonilla-Silva, E. (2010). Racism without Racists (3rd ed). Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.

Bonilla-Silva, E., Lewis, A., & Embrick, D.G. (2004). “I Did Not Get that Job Because of a Black Man…”: The Story Lines and Testimonies of Color-Blind Racism. Sociological Forum, 19, 555-581.

Brauer, M., Judd, C., & Jacquelin, V. (2001). The communication of social stereotypes: The effects of group discussion and information distribution on stereotypic appraisals. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 81(3), 463-475.

Chen, M. (1997). Nonconscious behavioral confirmation processes: the self-fulfilling consequences of automatic stereotype activation. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 33, 541-560.

Cohen, G. L., Garcia, J., Apfel, N., & Master, A. (2006). Reducing the Racial Achievement Gap: A Social-Psychological Intervention. Science, 313, 1307-1310.

Cooper, Roter, Carson, Beach, Sabin, Greenwald, & Inui. (2012). The associations of clinicians’ implicit attitudes about race with medical visit communication and patient ratings of interpersonal care.  American Journal of Public Health, 102, 979-987.

Correll, J., Park, B., Judd, C. M., & Wittenbrink, B. (2007). The influence of stereotypes on decisions to shoot. European Journal of Social Psychology, 37(6), 1102-1117.

Cose, E. (1993). Crime, class and cliches. In The Rage of a Privileged Class (pp. 93-110). New York: HarperCollins Publishers.

Cose, E. (1993, November 15). Rage of the Privileged. Newsweek, Nov 15, 1993.

Cose, E. (1997). Looking into and behind the color blind mind. In Color-blind: Seeing beyond race in a race obsessed world (Vol. 1, pp. 179-213). New York: Harper-Collins.

Crocker, J., & Major, B. (2003). The self-protective properties of stigma: Evolution of a modern classic. Psychological Inquiry, 14(3&4), 232-237.

Devine, P. (1989). Stereotypes and prejudice: Their automatic and controlled components. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 56(1), 5-18.

Dovidio, J. F. (2001). On the nature of contemporary prejudice: The third wave. Journal of Social Issues, 57(4), 829-849.

Dovidio, J. F., & Gaertner, S. L. (1999). Reducing Prejudice: Combating Intergroup Biases. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 8(4), 101-105.

Dovidio, J. F., & Gaertner, S. L. (2000). Aversive racism and selection decisions: 1989 and 1999. Psychological Science, 11(4), 315.

Dovidio, J. F., & Gaertner, S. L. (2001). Affirmative action, unintentional racial biases, and intergroup relations. Intergroup relations: Essential readings., 146-161.

Dovidio, J. F., & Gaertner, S. L. (2004). Aversive Racism. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 36, 1-52.

Dovidio, J. F., & Gaertner, S. L. (2007). New directions in aversive racism research: Persistence and pervasiveness. In C. W. Esqueda (Ed.), Nebraska Symposium on Motivation: Motivational aspects of prejudice and racism (pp. 43-67). New York: Springer.

Dovidio, J. F., Gaertner, S. E., Kawakami, K., & Hodson, G. (2002). Why can’t we just get along? Interpersonal biases and interracial distrust. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 8(2), 88-102. doi: 10.1037/1099-9809.8.2.88.

Dovidio, J. F., Kawakami, K., & Gaertner, S. L. (2002). Implicit and Explicit Prejudice and Interracial Interaction. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 82(1), 62-68.

Dovidio, J., Glick, P., & Rudman, L. (2005) (Eds). On the Nature of Prejudice: Fifty Years After Allport. Malden, MA: Blackwell.

Fazio, R. H., Jackson, J. R., Dunton, B. C., & Williams, C. J. (1995). Variability in Automatic Activation as an Unobtrusive Measure of Racial Attitudes: A Bona Fide Pipeline? Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 69(6), 1013-1027. doi: Article.

Fein, S., & Spencer, S. (1997). Prejudice as self-image maintenance affirming the self through derogating others. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 73(1), 31-44.

Gaertner, S. L., Dovidio, J. F., Banker, B. S., Rust, M. C., Neir, J. A., Mottola, G. R., & Ward, C. M. (1997/2003).  The challenge of aversive racism: Combating pro-white bias. In S. Plous (Ed.), Understanding Prejudice and Discrimination (pp. 491-499).  Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill.

Gaertner, S. L., & Dovidio, J. F. (2005). Understanding and Addressing Contemporary Racism: From Aversive Racism to the Common Ingroup Identity Model. Journal of Social Issues, 61(3), 615-639.

Galinsky, A. D., Martorana, P. V., & Ku, G. (2003). To control or not to control stereotypes: Separating the implicit and explicit processes of perspective-taking and suppression. In J. P. Forgas, K. D. Williams, & W. von Hippel (Eds.), Social judgments: Implicit and Explicit Processes. (pp. 343-363).

Galinsky, A. D., & Moskowitz, G. B. (2007). Further ironies of suppression: Stereotype and counterstereotype accessibility. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 43(5), 833-841.

Gehring, W. J., Karpinski, A., & Hilton, J. L. (2003). Thinking about interracial interactions. Nature Neuroscience, 6(12), 1241-1243.

Harwood et al. (2012). Racial microaggressions in the residence halls: Experiences of students of color at a predominantly White university. Journal of Diversity in Higher Education.

Henkel, K. E., Dovidio, J. F., & Gaertner, S. L. (2006). Institutional Discrimination, Individual Racism, and Hurricane Katrina. Analyses of Social Issues & Public Policy, 6(1), 99-124.

Hodson, Dovidio, & Gaertner. (2002). Processes in racial discrimination: Differential weighting of conflicting information. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin.

Hodson, Hooper, Dovidio, & Gaertner. (2005). Aversive racism in Britain: The use of inadmissible evidence in legal decisions. European Journal of Social Psychology.

Hogg, M. A. (2006). Social identity theory. In P. J. Burke (Ed.), Contemporary social psychological theories (pp. 111-136). Palo Alto, CA: Stanford University Press.

Houlette, M. A., Gaertner, S. L., Johnson, K. M., Banker, B. S., Riek, B. M., & Dovidio, J. F. (2004). Developing a More Inclusive Social Identity: An Elementary School Intervention. Journal of Social Issues, 60(1), 35-55.

Jenson, R. (2008). White privilege shapes the U.S. In P.S. Rothenberg’s (Ed.) White Privilege: Essential Readings on the Other Side of Racism, pp. 129-132. New York: Worth.

Johns, M., Schmader, T., & Martens, A. (2005). Knowing is Half the Battle: Teaching Stereotype Threat as a Means of Improving Women’s Math Performance. Psychological Science, 16(3), 175-179.

Johnson, J. D., Whitestone, E., Jackson, L. A., & Gatto, L. (1995). Justice is still not colorblind: Differential racial effects of exposure to inadmissible evidence. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 21(9), 893-898.

Jones, E.E., Farina, A., Hastorf, A., Markus, H. Miller, D.T., & Scott, R.A. (1984). Social Stigma: The psychology of marked relationships. New York, NY: W.H. Freeman and Company (Chapter 2, pp. 24-79.)

Jones, J. M.(1998). Psychological knowledge and the new American dilemma of race. Journal of Social Issues, 54(4), 641-662.

Jones, J.M. (2005). Mechanisms for coping with victimization: Self-protection plus self-enhancement. In J. F. Dovidio, P. Glick, & L. A. Rudman (Eds.), On the Nature of Prejudice: Fifty years after Allport (pp. 155-171). Malden, MA: Blackwell.

Jones, J.M., Dovidio, J.F., & Vietze, D. L. (2014). The psychology of diversity. United Kingdom: Wiley-Blackwell.

Judd, C. M., & Park, B. (2005). Group Differences and Stereotype Accuracy. In J. F. Dovidio, P. Glick, & L. A. Rudman (Eds.), On the nature of prejudice: Fifty years after Allport. (pp. 123-138).

Kang, J., & Banaji, M. (2006). Fair Measures: A Behavioral Realist Revision of Affirmative Action. California Law Review, 94, 1063-1118.

Karpinski, A., & Hilton, J. L. (2001). Attitudes and the Implicit Association Test. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 81(5), 774-788.

Katz, I. (1988). Racial ambivalence and American value conflict: Correlational and priming studies of dual cognitive structures. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 55(6), 893-905.

Kawakami, K., Dovidio, J. F., & van Kamp, S. (2005). Kicking the habit: Effects of nonstereotypic association training and correction processes on hiring decisions. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 41(1), 68-75.

Kawakami, K., Moll, J., Hermsen, S., Dovidio, J. F., & Russin, A. (2000). Just Say No (to stereotyping): Effects of Training in the Negation of Stereotypic Associations on Stereotype Activation. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 78(5), 871-888.

King, M.L. (1967). The Role of the Behavioral Scientist in the Civil Rights Movement. (APA Address).

Kristof, N. D. (2008, September 21). The Push to ‘Otherize’ Obama. The New York Times. Retrieved September 22, 2008, from  The New York Times .

LaFleur, N. K., Rowe, W., & Leach, M. M. (2002). Reconceptualizing White Racial Consciousness. Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development, 30(3), 148-52.

Lassiter, J.M. (2014, September 14). Whiteness in the psychological imagination. Retrieved from The Hampton Institute.

Lipsitz, G. (2008). The possessive investment in Whiteness. In P.S. Rothenberg’s (Ed.) White Privilege: Essential Readings on the Other Side of Racism, pp. 67-90. New York: Worth.

Lowery, B. S., Hardin, C. D., & Sinclair, S. (2001). Social influence effects on automatic racial prejudice. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 81(5), 842-855.

Lowery, B. S., Knowles, E. D., & Unzueta, M. M. (2007). Framing inequity safely: Whites’ motivated perceptions of racial privilege. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 33(9), 1237-1250.

Macrae, C. N., Milne, A. B., & Bodenhausen, G. V. (1994). Stereotypes as energy-saving devices: A peek inside the cognitive toolbox. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 66(1), 37-47.

Macrae, C. (1994). Activating social stereotypes: a functional analysis. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 30, 370-389.

Major, B., & O’Brien, L. T. (2005). The Social Psychology of Stigma. Annual Review of Psychology, 56, 393-421.

Malveaux, J. Still at the periphery: The economic status of African Americans. In Race and resistance: The economics of race, class and gender in the United States (pp. 291-296). South End Press.

Mantsios, G. (1999/2007).  Media Magic: Making class invisible.  In P. S. Rothenberg (Ed.), Race, Class, and Gender in the United States (7th ed., pp. 636-644).  New York: Worth.

Markus, H.R. & Moya, P.M.L. (Eds.). (2010). Doing race: 21 essays for the 21st century. New York, NY: W.W. Norton.

Martens, A., Johns, M., Greenberg, J., & Schimel, J. (2006). Combating stereotype threat: The effect of self-affirmation on women’s intellectual performance. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 42(2), 236-243.

Mays, V. M., Cochran, S. D., & Barnes, N. W. Race, Race-Based Discrimination, and Health Outcomes Among African Americans. Annual Review of Psychology, 58, 201-225.

McIntosh (1988/2008). White privilege: Unpacking the invisible knapsack.

Miller, N. (2002). Personalization and the Promise of Contact Theory. Journal of Social Issues, 58(2), 387.

Miller (1986/2007). Domination and subordination. In P. S. Rothenberg (Ed.), Race, Class, and Gender in the United States (7th ed., pp. 123-130).  New York: Worth.

Monin, B. (2001). Moral Credentials and the Expression of Prejudice. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 81(1), 33-43.

Nail, P. R., Harton, H. C., & Barnes, A. (2008). A Test of Dovidio and Gaertner’s Integrated Model of Racism. North American Journal of Psychology, 10(1), 197-220.

Nelson, T.D. (2002). Old-fashioned versus Modern Racism. Chapter 5 of The Psychology of Prejudice (pp. 108-129). Allyn & Bacon, Boston.

Neville et al. (2013). Color-blind racial ideology: Theory, training, and measurement implications in psychology. American Psychologist.

Newheiser & Olson (2011). White and Black American children’s implicit intergroup bias. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology.

Norton, M. I., Sommers, S. R., Apfelbaum, E. P., Pura, N., & Ariely, D. (2006). Color blindness and interracial interaction: Playing the political correctness game. Psychological Science, 17(11), 949-953.

Obama: ‘A More Perfect Union’ (Full Speech). (2008). Retrieved September 21, 2008, from  Click here for transcript.

Olson, M. A., & Fazio, R. H. (2007). Discordant evaluations of Blacks affect nonverbal behavior. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 33(9), 1214-1224.

Omi, M. & Winant, H. (1986/2007). Racial formations. In P. S. Rothenberg (Ed.), Race, Class, and Gender in the United States (7th ed., pp. 13-22). New York: Worth.

Operario, D. (2001). Ethnic identity moderates perceptions of prejudice: Judgments of personal versus group discrimination and subtle versus blatant bias. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 27(5), 550-561.

Page, C. (1996). The rudeness of race: An introduction. In Showing My Color (pp. 1-27). New York: Harper Collins.

Payne, B. (2001). Prejudice and Perception: The Role of Automatic and Controlled Processes in Misperceiving a Weapon. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 81(2), 181-192.

Pitts, Jr., L. (2008). Crazy sometimes. In P.S. Rothenberg’s (Ed.) White Privilege: Essential Readings on the Other Side of Racism, pp. 137-141. New York: Worth.

Pratto, F. (1994). Social Dominance Orientation: A Personality Variable Predicting Social and Political Attitudes. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 67(4), 741-763.

Quillian, L., & Pager, D. (2001). Black Neighbors, Higher Crime? The Role of Racial Stereotypes in Evaluations of Neighborhood Crime. American Journal of Sociology, 107(3), 717.

Richeson, J. A., & Nussbaum, R. J. (2004). The impact of multiculturalism versus color-blindness on racial bias. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 40(3), 417-423.

Rosenberg, P. (2004). Color blindness in teacher education: An optical delusion (Chapter 19). In Off White/Readings on Power, Privilege & Resistance (pp. 257-272). NY: Routledge.

Rothenberg. P.S. (2008). White Privilege: Essential Readings on the Other Side of Racism. Worth Publishers.

Rudman, L. A., & Ashmore, R. D. (2007). Discrimination and the Implicit Association Test. Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, 10(3), 359-372.

Rudman, L. A., Ashmore, R. D., & Gary, M. L. (2001). ‘Unlearning’ automatic biases: The malleability of implicit prejudice and stereotypes. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 81(5), 856-868.

Sampson, R. J., & Raudenbush, S. W. (2004). Seeing Disorder: Neighborhood Stigma and the Social Construction of ‘Broken Windows’. Social Psychology Quarterly, 67(4), 319-342.

Sears, D. O. (2004). A Perspective on Implicit Prejudice From Survey Research: Comment. Psychological Inquiry, 15(4), 293-297.

Shelton, J. N., Richeson, J. A., Salvatore, J., & Trawalter, S. (2005). Ironic Effects of Racial Bias During Interracial Interactions. Psychological Science, 16(5), 397-402.

Sidanius, J. & Pratto, F. (1993). The Inevitability of Oppression and the Dynamics of Social Dominance. In P. Sniderman & P. Tetlock (Eds.), Prejudice, Politics, and the American Dilemma. Stanford University Press, pp. 173-211.

Snyder, M. (1994). On the functions of stereotypes and prejudice. In The Psychology of Prejudice: The Ontario symposium (Vol. 7, pp. 33-54).

Spencer, S. J., Fein, S., Wolfe, C. T., Fong, C., & Dunn, M. A. (1998). Automatic Activation of Stereotypes: The Role of Self-Image Threat. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 24, 1139-1152.

Staples, B. (2008, September 22). Barack Obama, John McCain and the Language of Race. The New York Times. Retrieved September 22, 2008, from

Steele, C. (1997). A threat in the air: How stereotypes shape intellectual identity and performance. American Psychologist, 52(6), 613-629.

Steele, C. (1999). Thin Ice:” Stereotype Threat” and Black College Students. The Atlantic Monthly, 284(2), 44-53.

Stephens et al. (2009). Why did they “choose” to stay? Perspectives of Hurricane Katrina observers and survivors. Psychological Science.

Sue, D.W. (2010). Microaggressions in everyday life: Race, gender, and sexual orientation. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

Suedfeld, P. (2004). Racism in the Brain; Or Is It Racism on the Brain: Comment. Psychological Inquiry, 15(4), 298-302.

Swarns, R. L. (2008, August 3). Obama’s Delicate Path on Class and Race Preferences. The New York Times. Retrieved August 2, 2008, from The New York Times.

Tatum, B.D. (1994).  Teaching white students about racism: The search for white allies and the restoration of hope. Teachers College Record, 95, 462-476.

Tatum, B. D. (1997). “Why are All the Black Kids Sitting Together in the Cafeteria?”: And Other Conversations about Race.

Tatum (2008). Breaking the silence. In P.S. Rothenberg (Ed.) White Privilege: Essential Readings on the Other Side of Racism. Worth Publishers.

Unzueta, M. M., & Lowery, B. S. (2008). Defining racism safely: The role of self-image maintenance on white Americans’ conceptions of racism. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 44(6), 1491-1497.

Unzueta, M. M., Lowery, B. S., & Knowles, E. D. (2008). How believing in affirmative action quotas protects White men’s self-esteem. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 105(1), 1-13.

Walton & Spencer (2009). Latent ability: Grades and test scores systematically underestimate the intellectual ability of negatively stereotyped students. Psychological Science, 20, 1132-9.

Wildman, S.M. & Davis, A.D. (2008). Making systems of privilege visible. In P.S. Rothenberg’s (Ed.) White Privilege: Essential Readings on the Other Side of Racism, pp. 109-115. New York: Worth.

Wolfe, C., & Spencer, S. (1996). Stereotypes and prejudice Their overt and subtle influence in the classroom. American Behavioral Scientist, 40(2), 176-185.

Word, C. O., Zanna, M. P., & Cooper, J. (1974). The nonverbal mediation of self-fulfilling prophecies in interracial interaction. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 10(2), 109-120.

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